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Clinically Proven

June 23, 2010

Arterial Heat Balance Thermometry at an Exposed Skin Site: Accuracy, Comfort, and Convenience for Patient and Clinician
Summary – Full report (Click Here)

There has in the past been no method of thermometry that is considered by patients and clinicians to be comfortable, convenient, and accurate. Rectal, oral, axilla, and ear thermometry all have either significant discomfort due to the use of a body cavity, artifactual inaccuracies due to physiological/device phenomena, or both, thus making them less than desirable for the needs of both patient and clinician. The exposed skin eliminates the use of a body cavity, but an accurate method using the skin has heretofore not been demonstrated.

The superficial temporal artery demonstrates the necessary requirements for the skin thermometry method: it is easily accessible, contains no mucous membranes, and notably, it has no or very few arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA). Lack of AVA’s means that perfusion rate is reliable under essentially all conditions, and the blood flow is relatively free of vasomotor control in response to thermomoregulatory stimuli. This property is unique to the temporal artery when considering all accessible cutaneous blood vessels. The high and reliable perfusion allows accurate mathematical computations of the heat lost to the environment due to the cutaneous flow, and thus an accurate calculation of the source arterial temperature at the heart.
As a site for temperature measurement, the temporal artery presents many benefits: it poses no risk of injury for patient or clinician, eliminates any need for disrobing or unbundling, and is suitable for all ages. Accordingly, Exergen, incorporating a patented and well-proven arterial heat balance method, developed instrumentation for non-invasive arterial temperature assessment on the skin over temporal artery. The following published peer-reviewed independent studies and papers support the validity of this method.

Peer-Reviewed Published Papers and Abstracts on Exergen Temporal Artery Thermometry

1. Al-Mukazeem F, Allen U, Komar L, et al. University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children. Validation of the temporal artery thermometry by its comparison with the esophageal method in children. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, May 3-6, 2003, Seattle, WA.
2. Al-Mukazeem F, Allen U, Komar L, et al. University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children. Comparison of temporal artery, rectal and esophageal core temperatures in children: Results of a pilot study. Journal of Pediatric and Child Health, Vol 9, No 7, pp 461-465, 2004.
3. Burdjalov VF, Combs A, Nachman S, Baumgart S. Non-Invasive infrared temperature assessment of the temporal artery for core temperature determination in premature neonates, Presented American Pediatric Society and the Society for Pediatric Research, May 1, 2001.
4. Callanan D. Detecting fever in young infants: reliability of perceived, pacifier, and temporal artery temperatures in infants younger than 3 months of age. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2003 Aug;19(4):240-3.
5. Canales AE. OTC device: temporal scanner TAT-2000C. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash DC). 2007 Jan-Feb;47(1):112.
6. Carroll DL, Finn C, Gill S, Sawyer J, Judge B. The Massachusetts General Hospital. A Comparison of measurements from a temporal artery thermometer and a pulmonary artery catheter thermistor. AACN Poster 2004. http://www.aacn.org/AACN/NTIPoster.nsf/vwdoc/2004RESDCarroll?opendocument.
7. Chiu SH, Anderson GC, Burkhammer MD, University of Akron/Case Western Reserve University. Newborn temperature during skin-to-skin breastfeeding in couples having breastfeeding difficulties. Birth. 2005 Jun;32(2):115-21.
8. Dybwik K, Nielsen EW. Infrared temporal temperature measurement. Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association 2003; 123: 3025-6.
9. Espenhein A. Temporal temperature measurement. Sygeplejersken 2006;(17):50-2.
10. Greenes DS, Fleisher GR. Boston Childrens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Accuracy of a noninvasive temporal artery thermometer for use in infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, Vol 155, pp 376-381, Mar 2001
11. Greenes DS, Fleisher GR. Boston Childrens Hospital and Harvard Medical School. When body temperature changes, does rectal temperature lag? Journal of Pediatrics, 02.037, pp 824-826, September 2004.
12. Hebbar K, Fortenberry JD, Rogers K, Merritt R, Easley K. Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston. Comparison of temporal artery thermometer to standard temperature measurements in pediatric intensive care unit patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep;6(5):557-61.
13. Lawson L, Bridges E, Ballou I, Eraker R, Greco S, Shively J, Sochulak V. University of Washington. Temperature measurement in critically ill adults. Am. J. Crit. Care., May 2006; 15: 324 – 346.
14. Lawson L, Bridges E, Ballou I, Eraker R, Greco S, Shively J, Sochulak V. University of Washington. Accuracy and precision of noninvasive temperature measurement in adult intensive care patients. Am. J. Crit. Care., Sep 2007; 16:5, 485-496.
15. Martinez EA, Krenzischek D, Hobson D, Hunt D, Johns Hopkins SSI Program Development Team, Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland. The structure and processes of care delivery impact postoperative normothermia. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: A496.
16. Myny D, DeWaele J, Defloor T, Blot S, Colardyn F. Intensive Care Unit, Ghent University
Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, Temporal scanner thermometry: a new method of core temperature measurement in intensive care patients. SMJ 2005 45(1): 15-18.
17. Pompei F, Pompei M. Non-invasive temporal artery thermometry: Physics, Physiology, and Clinical Accuracy, presented at Medical Thermometry for SARS Detection, SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, available in Conference Proceedings, April, 2004.
18. Pompei F. Insufficiency in thermometer data. Anesth Analg. 2003 Mar;96(3):908-9.
19. Pompei F. RE: A brief report on the normal range of forehead temperature as determined by noncontact, handheld, infrared thermometer. Am J Infect Control. 2006 May;34(4):248-9.
20. Routhier D, Hostler D, Wolfson A, Wheeler M, Reynolds J. University of Pittsburgh. Comparison of temporal artery and oral temperatures in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med, May 2006, Vol. 13, No. 5, Suppl. 1, http://www.aemj.org , p. S99.
21. Roy S, Powell K, Gerson LW. Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine/Akron Children’s Hospital. Temporal artery temperature measurements in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Clinical Pediatrics, pp 433-437, June 2003.
22. Sandlin D. New Product Review: Temporal Artery Thermometry, Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, Vol. 18, No 6 (December) 2003, pp 419-421.
23. Schuh S, Komar L, Stephens D, Chu L, Read S, Allen U, University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children. Comparison of the temporal artery and rectal thermometry in children in the emergency department. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, May 3-6, 2003, Seattle, WA.
24. Schuh S, Komar L, Stephens D, Chu L, Read S, Allen U, University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children. Comparison of the temporal artery and rectal thermometry in children in the emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care, Vol 20, No. 11, Nov 2004.
25. Siberry GK, Diener-West M, Schappell E, Karron RA (Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University). Comparison of temple temperatures with rectal temperatures in children under two years of age. Clinical Pediatrics, pp 405-414, July/August 2002.
26. Szmuk P, Curry BP, Sheeran PW, Farrow-Gillespie AC, Ezri T (Anesthesiology, UT Southwestern and Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, Texas). Perioperative temperature audit in a large pediatric hospital. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: A1612.

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